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Observation model construction for usage with bru()


  formula = . ~ .,
  family = "gaussian",
  data = NULL,
  response_data = NULL,
  mesh = deprecated(),
  E = NULL,
  Ntrials = NULL,
  weights = NULL,
  samplers = NULL,
  ips = NULL,
  domain = NULL,
  include = NULL,
  exclude = NULL,
  include_latent = NULL,
  used = NULL,
  allow_latent = deprecated(),
  allow_combine = NULL, = NULL,
  options = list(),
  .envir = parent.frame()


# S3 method for list
like_list(object, envir = NULL, ...)

# S3 method for bru_like
like_list(..., envir = NULL)

# S3 method for bru_like
c(..., envir = NULL)

# S3 method for bru_like_list
c(..., envir = NULL)

# S3 method for bru_like_list
[(x, i)



a formula where the right hand side is a general R expression defines the predictor used in the model.


A string identifying a valid INLA::inla likelihood family. The default is gaussian with identity link. In addition to the likelihoods provided by inla (see names(INLA::inla.models()$likelihood)) inlabru supports fitting latent Gaussian Cox processes via family = "cp". As an alternative to bru(), the lgcp() function provides a convenient interface to fitting Cox processes.


Likelihood-specific data, as a data.frame or SpatialPoints[DataFrame] object.


Likelihood-specific data for models that need different size/format for inputs and response variables, as a data.frame or SpatialPoints[DataFrame] object.




Exposure parameter for family = 'poisson' passed on to INLA::inla. Special case if family is 'cp': rescale all integration weights by E. Default taken from options$E, normally 1.


A vector containing the number of trials for the 'binomial' likelihood. Default taken from options$Ntrials, normally 1.


Fixed (optional) weights parameters of the likelihood, so the log-likelihood[i] is changed into weights[i] * log_likelihood[i]. Default value is 1. WARNING: The normalizing constant for the likelihood is NOT recomputed, so ALL marginals (and the marginal likelihood) must be interpreted with great care.


Integration domain for 'cp' family.


Integration points for 'cp' family. Overrides samplers.


Named list of domain definitions.


Character vector of component labels that are used as effects by the predictor expression; Default: the result of [all.vars()] on the predictor expression, unless the expression is not ".", in which case include=NULL, to include all components that are not explicitly excluded. The bru_used() methods are used to extract the variable names, followed by removal of non-component names when the components are available.


Character vector of component labels that are not used by the predictor expression. The exclusion list is applied to the list as determined by the include parameter; Default: NULL (do not remove any components from the inclusion list)


character vector. Specifies which the latent state variables are directly available to the predictor expression, with a _latent suffix. This also makes evaluator functions with suffix _eval available, taking parameters main, group, and replicate, taking values for where to evaluate the component effect that are different than those defined in the component definition itself (see component_eval()). Default NULL auto-detects use of _latent and _eval in the predictor expression.


Either NULL or a bru_used() object, overriding include, exclude, and include_latent.


[Deprecated] logical, deprecated. Use include_latent instead.


logical; If TRUE, the predictor expression may involve several rows of the input data to influence the same row. Default FALSE, but forced to TRUE if response_data is non-NULL, data is a list, or the likelihood construction requires it.

A optional list of options


A bru_options options object or a list of options passed on to bru_options()


The evaluation environment to use for special arguments (E, Ntrials, and weights) if not found in response_data or data. Defaults to the calling environment.


For like_list.bru_like, one or more bru_like objects


A list of bru_like objects


An optional environment for the new bru_like_list object


bru_like_list object from which to extract element(s)


indices specifying elements to extract


A likelihood configuration which can be used to parameterise bru().


  • like_list(): Combine bru_like likelihoods into a bru_like_list object

  • like_list(list): Combine a list of bru_like likelihoods into a bru_like_list object

  • like_list(bru_like): Combine several bru_like likelihoods into a bru_like_list object

  • c(bru_like): Combine several bru_like likelihoods and/or bru_like_list objects into a bru_like_list object

  • c(bru_like_list): Combine several bru_like likelihoods and/or bru_like_list objects into a bru_like_list object


Fabian E. Bachl

Finn Lindgren


# \donttest{
if (bru_safe_inla() &&
    require(ggplot2, quietly = TRUE)) {

  # The like function's main purpose is to set up models with multiple likelihoods.
  # The following example generates some random covariates which are observed through
  # two different random effect models with different likelihoods

  # Generate the data


  n1 <- 200
  n2 <- 10

  x1 <- runif(n1)
  x2 <- runif(n2)
  z2 <- runif(n2)

  y1 <- rnorm(n1, mean = 2 * x1 + 3)
  y2 <- rpois(n2, lambda = exp(2 * x2 + z2 + 3))

  df1 <- data.frame(y = y1, x = x1)
  df2 <- data.frame(y = y2, x = x2, z = z2)

  # Single likelihood models and inference using bru are done via

  cmp1 <- y ~ -1 + Intercept(1) + x
  fit1 <- bru(cmp1, family = "gaussian", data = df1)

  cmp2 <- y ~ -1 + Intercept(1) + x + z
  fit2 <- bru(cmp2, family = "poisson", data = df2)

  # A joint model has two likelihoods, which are set up using the like function

  lik1 <- like("gaussian", formula = y ~ x + Intercept, data = df1)
  lik2 <- like("poisson", formula = y ~ x + z + Intercept, data = df2)

  # The union of effects of both models gives the components needed to run bru

  jcmp <- ~ x + z + Intercept(1)
  jfit <- bru(jcmp, lik1, lik2)

  # Compare the estimates

  p1 <- ggplot() +
    gg(fit1$summary.fixed, bar = TRUE) +
    ylim(0, 4) +
    ggtitle("Model 1")
  p2 <- ggplot() +
    gg(fit2$summary.fixed, bar = TRUE) +
    ylim(0, 4) +
    ggtitle("Model 2")
  pj <- ggplot() +
    gg(jfit$summary.fixed, bar = TRUE) +
    ylim(0, 4) +
    ggtitle("Joint model")

  multiplot(p1, p2, pj)

# }